General information regarding invasive exotics and specifics about individual species were drawn from the following sources:                                                                                          

Cronk, Quentin C.B. and Janice L. Fuller.  Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems.  London: Earthscan Publications Limited, 2001.

Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist.  Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada.  Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company, Incorporated, 1963.

Gray, Asia.  Gray’s Manual of Botany: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada—Eighth Centennial Edition—Illustrated.  Portland: Dioscorides Press, 1950. 

Holmgren, Noel H.  The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual: Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada.  Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden, 1998.

Luken, James O. and John W. Thieret (editors).  Springer Series on Environmental Management: Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions.  New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Incorporated, 1997.

McNeely, Jeffrey A. (editor).  The Great Reshuffling: Human Dimensions of Invasive Alien Species.  Cambridge: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2001.

McNeely, Jeffrey A., Mooney, Harold A., Neville, Laurie E., Schei, Peter Johan, and Jeffrey K. Waage.  Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species.  Cambridge: IUCN Global Invasive Species Programme, 2001.

Radford, Albert E. and C. Ritchie Bell.  Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas.  Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

Rubec, Clayton D.A. and Gerry O. Lee (compilers).  Conserving Vitality and DiversityProceedings of the World Conservation Congress Workshop on Alien Invasive Species (October 20, 1996)Ottawa: IUCN Species Survival Commission and the North American Wetlands Conservation Council, 1997.

The Alien Plant Working Group, a part of The Plant Conservation Alliance through The National Park Service (

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation and their List of Invasive Alien Plants Species of Virginia (

Special thanks to Dr. John Hayden, Professor of Biology at the University of Richmond, and the University of Richmond Biology Department.


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